Greek | Celtic
Some informative links:
Odin and Christ. Images on Swedish runic stones
Odin and Hermes. Images of an architectural decor of Saint Petersburg and Moscow
Summary table of the Indo-European gods
Basic types of the Indo-European gods
Genesis and evolution of characters
By Atalante Pythie
Reconstructionism is a Pagan path that finds its sources in ancient cultures and updates it for our modern times. While adapting to the modern world, a sense of historical accuracy is primary.
Hellenic Reconstructionism is based on the religious life and divine pantheon of Ancient Greece. Hellenic Reconstructionism is not the only Reconstructionist religion. You can find Germanic and Norse Reconstructionists (Asatru), Slavic Reconstructionists (Romuva), ancient Rome Reconstructionists (for example: Roma Nova), ancient Egyptian Reconstructionists (Kemetic), and even Celtic ones.
Reconstructionists find their knowledge in primary sources. For example, Hellenic Reconstructionists look to Homer (The Iliad, The Odyssey), Hesiod (The Theogony) and other ancient Greek authors. Reconstructionists also use scholars' works. A good example, for Hellenic Reconstructionists, is Greek Religion by Walter Burkert. (For a more complete reference of Walter Burkert, Homer and Hesiod, please scroll down.)
There are limits we encounter as Reconstructionists, such as scarcity of information. There are some limits we impose upon ourselves, such as gender equality, protecting children from harm, etc.
When thinking of the Ancient Greeks, the first things that come to mind are the symposium, philosophy, animal sacrifices (the hecatomb), pederasty and a pretty complex mythology. In the modern world, the Hellenic Reconstructionist must adapt (the same is surely true for reconstructionists of other paths). Some of our values have changed since ancient times. Animal sacrifice is a bit impractical in our modern cities and pederasty is not acceptable. Philosophy has become a valuable scientific and mental pursuit (but not always appreciated by students). Mythology is only knowledge of divinities, stories and heroes without much more value except to show some culture.
So what could draw somebody toward this particular religion? The reasons are as many as there are individuals. But there are some attractive aspects to this path: There are a lot of written documents from the ancient Greeks themselves, so we can see more easily how they perceived the world around themselves and their place in it (ritual included). There are many scholars who have studied the ancient Greeks, so there are many scholarly books that give a good overview of ancient Greece.
There have been many artists, authors and poets who were inspired by the ancient Greeks. For example, there is the famous Birth of Venus by Botticelli. The poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (the husband of Mary Shelley) wrote a lot of poetry drawn from mythology (like Prometheus Unbound, Orpheus, a Hymn to Apollo, etc.). There are modern authors like Colleen McCullough who wrote The Song of Troy, Martin H. Greenberg and Bruce D. Arthus who edited Olympus and there is the series Book of the Gods by Fred Saberhagen.
Even today there is some influence of Greek mythology on popular culture. For example, there is the symbol of the FTD company that shows a classic representation of Hermes. There are car names like Saturn. All the planets (except Earth) and many of the moons of this solar system are named after Greek or Roman deities. There are the Olympian Tarot, the Mythic Tarot and the Pythagorean Tarot, all of which show famous characters of mythology on their cards. In TV shows we see some characters from Greek mythology. For example: Charmed had some episodes showing some Greek deities. There are plenty of those characters in Hercules (both the series and the cartoon version) and Xena. There are a lot of references we can see. Those examples are pretty much evident.
Another interesting point is the variety in what Hellenic Reconstructionism can offer. There was variation from polis (city) to polis. Not only the mythology had some variation, but the calendar was a bit different in each polis. There were some festivals specific to each polis and some more widely acknowledged festivities like the Mysteries of Eleusis in honor of Demeter and Persephone, the Bakkhika (Bacchic) Mysteries in honor of Dionysos, the Mysteries held at Samothrace in the honor of the Kabeiroi, and the famous Olympic Games. There were some different movements like Orphism and some foreign cults such as the one of Kybele and her consort Attis. There was some influence from the Near East, as we can see from the cult of Kybele and also from Crete, as we can see from the stories about the childhood of Zeus and the stories about Minos.
Some will argue that Reconstructionism in general is pretty much about research and being a bookworm. This is partly true for Hellenic Reconstructionism but, while there is historical authenticity to maintain, there is also room for personal creativity in filling in the gaps. Books are great to refer to, but they don't tell us all we need to know. There is information that has been lost over time or that some ancient authors didn't bother to write about because it was self-evident to them. And there is some necessary adaptation to modern ethics. Hellenic Reconstructionism is the pursuit of reconstructing the religious culture of Ancient Greece that is still relevant to us today, not about reproducing ancient Greek society. In the same vein, the Delphic maxims (know thyself, nothing in excess, etc.) are a precious guide for our moral code. The ancient philosophers like Diogenes, Plato, Socrates, and all, can be a supplement, if the individual is attracted to this discipline.
The calendar of festivities is not like those of other paths. There are some days for our divinities (like Zeus, Aphrodite, Apollon, Arthemis, etc.) and some days related to the ancient agricultural cycle. The Athenian Calendar is a bit better known than the others. To have a good and more complete overview of the calendar, visit the two following sites:
Hellenic Month Established Per Athens (HMEPA)
The Hellenic Reconstructionist community is not a large one, but there is a movement to get together, especially networking on the Internet. There are a few mailing lists now devoted to the Greek pantheon. There is the Hellenic Pagan list, the Hellenion list and also the Hellenion Canada list. There is the Hellenion organisation. This site offers many regional mailing lists beside the main mailing list. It is a very young organisation, but there are a lot of devoted people there. They will happily help you and answer all the questions you may have.
Here are some good Internet Websites beside Hellenion's:
A good book to start with on the subject would be Old Stones, New Temple, Ancient Greek Paganism Reborn by Drew Campbell (c2000, ISBN 0-7388-3201-4). It is a very good starting book on that specific topic. I would recommend having a look at the FAQ at the end of the book (chapter 35, pp.321-334). It will give a more complete picture of this particular path.
Here are other good books:
Homer. The Iliad and The Odyssey
Hesiod. The Theogony
Burkert, Walter. Greek Religion. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, c1985, c1977, ISBN 0-674-36281-0 (paper)
Lesley Adkins and Roy A. Adkins. Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece. Oxford University Press, Oxford, c1997, ISBN 0-19-512491-X (pbk)
Sarah B. Pomeroy, Stanley M. Beurstein, Walter Donlan, Jennifer Tolbert Roberts. Ancient Greece: A Political, Social and Cultural History. Oxford University Press, Oxford, c1999 ISBN 0-19-509742-4 (cloth) ISBN 0-19-509743-2 (pbk)
For those interested in or having affinities with this topic, you can contact me. I would be pleased to answer questions to the best of my ability.
Other link: http://www.nomos-arkhaios.org/
By Brian Walsh (from http://groups.yahoo.com/group/newtara/)
"Pagan Reconstructionism is a methodology for developing and practicing historical forms of paganism in the modern world. It begins from the twin assumptions that the religious expressions of the ancients were meaningful in themselves, and that forms of religious practice remain valid across time. While all Reconstructionists acknowledge the need to adapt ancient practice to modern circumstances, they generally hold a conservative position vis-Ó-vis tradition: The ancients are the giants upon whose shoulders we stand."
D. Campbell, "Old Stones, New Temples", 2000
I would like to preface this article by saying I consider myself to be a Reconstructionist who supports the endeavour and the process even if I do not always agree with the politics.
Reconstructionism is not a particular religion per se, but an approach shared by several religions. Each of these religions is a revivalist faith, ritually and theologically rooted in their source culture.
The Reconstructionist approach has several basic axiomatic assumptions:
There are human experiences universal to every culture, although not every culture will experience them to the same degree or give them the same importance.
Any single source culture is robust enough in its symbolic language to express any experience or concept relevant to that culture.
Importing or merging different symbolic expressions from different cultures of the same or similar experience or concept potentially results in both a loss of clarity and increased confusion in expressing that experience or concept within that culture.
Gods, symbols, and practices lose there meaning when they are stripped of the relationships in which they developed.
The promotion of cultural specificity over eclecticism assists in ordering and internalizing a particular relationship with the gods, each other, and the world.
Innovations are judge on precedented material for appropriateness, not only thematically, but also in its symbolic expression (borrowings, expect from closely related cultures are treated as pure innovations, their presence elsewhere doe not automatically validate their incorporation.)
Historical precedent is valuable, not only for understanding the past, but for application in the present.
Personal inspiration is respect, but on the understanding that it needs to be contextualize in or against historical precedent.
Celtic Reconstructionism is doubly blessed, for the importance of tradition and precedent indigenous to Celtic culture is also valued in the methodologies of modern Reconstructionism. However despite such good intentions, the limits on the available information have occasionally brought into question whether there is enough material to actually fulfill the requirements of a Reconstructionist agenda.
Regardless, Celtic spirituality, be it pagan or Christian, has a strong tradition of intellectual rigour and academic excellence. The druids were the historians, lawyers, philosophers, and theologians of the people, while the monks that followed served some of the same roles, both at home and in keeping the light of Western learning bright through the Dark Ages.
Celtic Spirituality has always had a strong love of precedent and scholarship, and is no stranger to strongly held opinions and debate. However, the modern movement can also be criticized for ignoring the respect for individual choices, creative expressions of attested themes (in the light of the aforementioned limits on available information), and the vast breadth of (often unique) attested spiritual practices. All of these are attested to in the material we have available right along side the rigorous adherence to more familiar/usual/common standardized conservative forms.
Of course, for a modern Reconstructionist aspirant, sufficient understanding of our source culture is necessary before one can judge what innovations are appropriate to a conservative expression of faith and what would simply be eclectic borrowing or otherwise striking out on one's own.
However, understanding the source material is not enough. Understanding a methodological approach to theology and ritual studies is also necessary in the reinvention of a religion. It must also be understood that theology, ritual, and myth, even in uninterrupted religions, do not exist in a one to one to one relationship.
To use familiar examples, the Christian concept of the Trinity is very poorly precedented in the Bible, and in the very few times Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are mentioned together there relationship is not explicated Yet this is a primary, useful, and valued theological concept expressed in ritual and theology for all Catholics, Orthodox, and many Protestant denominations as well.
Another Christian example is the reverence and concepts attached to the Virgin Mary, emerging first and foremost from practice and theology not myth, or primary text reference this figure of modest worth in the Bible is a very important focus of popular devotion and doctrinal importance.
To furnish a pagan example from one of our sister faiths; the person of Zeus found in many of the descriptions we have for him outside of myth, in ritual practices, and comments of the devout, is overall, much more personable, approachable, and just than is the Zeus depicted in mythology. Likewise, Zeus' position in the myths, though powerful, does not justify the henotheistic sentiments expressed by Xenophanes or the monistic sentiments expressed by others.
These examples illustrate that textual literalism of the myths are likely to produce an understanding far more limited than those found in the religion in question as a whole.
So, returning to the matter of Celtic Reconstructionism, despite our commitment to the past we must be open to expressions and concepts which build upon them, without contradiction, but that may have their original roots in Celtic Christianity, careful application of Indo-European studies, related philosophical advances, alternative readings of the material to different from our own, or personal gnosis/prophetic insight, so long as they do not violate the integrity of the source material we have available.
For this reason I am suspicious of judgements borne of the illusion of strict orthopraxy, especially across the boundaries of one Celtic Reconstructionist practice to another. In many instances it may be inappropriate to the very spirituality we are reviving, as the Celtic world often had "period[s] of comfort and self-confidence where it took great interest in the cultures and artistic expressions of its neighbours and borrowed freely from them, yet always adapting such borrowings to native Celtic tastes and values"(Kondratiev 1997).
In matters of expression, I do not support protest/counter-protest divisions like some polytheistic version of those historical conflicts that pit 'papist superstition' against 'Puritanism', or 'traditional' against 'heretical'. Such divisions in Reconstructionism can be viewed as competing bids for legitimacy much like the schisms that sunder the Christian faith. Conversely if such differences are addressed, where appropriate, as viable alternative traditions in which one simply chooses not to participate, then these different denominations can be viewed as just that, in the same way that Catholics and Anglicans tend, today at least, to acknowledge each other.
Of course, the opinion that there can be more then one legitimate expression of Celtic spirituality is not a wholesale endorsement of an anything goes mentality. To create a sound Celtic spiritual practice, information must be gathered and cited conservatively, innovations within the modern Celtic faith movement must be discerned from historical data (and acknowledgement must be given to those historical periods when intense innovation and change did occur within the culture), and critical thought must be used judiciously by those who have attained a certain level of understanding of both our source culture(s) and religious theory. Of course, this is an ongoing process, currently in its 'teen years', and will not reach maturity overnight.
In some online forums I've noticed that no matter how carefully the available information is researched, once it is put into action, our 'peers' will take exception to how we fill in the gaps. As well, some of the most prickly 'peers', ready with more criticism than
*guiding suggestion*, either don't seem to have a spiritual practice or hide their practice completely to avoid bringing the same reactions upon themselves.
Much of these communication problems may be the result of the broader Celtic Reconstructionist movement being connected mainly, and sometimes exclusively, by our on-line presence and resources. Others are simply indicative of the current state of affairs in modern Celtic paganism generally: the divergence of Reconstructionism from Traditionalism; widespread misinformation about Celtic culture among Neo-Pagans; the prejudice against "academic" learning vs. the practical integration of precedent in a vital and creative way; meritocracy vs. hyper-individualism; the (false) juxtaposition between creativity and discipline or precedented parameters; the place of direct gnosis; ambivalent feelings toward modern economics and attitudes which lead to the appropriation of indigenous culture against the awareness that it is this same systems that has given many of us access to the cultures themselves; etc. There are legitimate frustrations on both sides. However, acting with the goal of building rather than tearing down is a higher act of piety and generosity in my mind.
I also don't think all Celtic Reconstructionists need to place exactly the
same value on culture as every other Celtic Reconstructionist, save to agree
it is valuable. Some have religion as part of an essentially cultural pursuit,
akin to Celtic Traditionalism, others (like myself) value culture as a vital
resource for an essentially religious/spiritual pursuit, some see these pursuits
as synonymous pursuits, and others do not. So long as people are honest in their
effort and honest in stating what comes from where, and why, and how that's
relevant, I don't see that this should be an issue. Of course, where this is
not the case, the possibility for legitimate disagreement goes way up.
(Note Brian Walsh is Pagan Chaplain at the UofT.)
Other info on Celtic Reconstructionism
Reconstructionists have to reconstruct. That requires scholarly study of the past. Here's a Basic Celtic Studies Reading List from Erynn Rowan Laurie, "poet-terrorist for a better society", with "blessings of land, sea and sky."
"My Cauldron of Poesy article.
"My article The Truth Against the World, which is a lengthy essay on Celtic ethics and their application to modern Celtic Paganism.
"You might be able to find used copies of my 'A Circle of Stones: Journeys & Meditations for Modern Celts' from Eschaton in used book listings, though it is also no longer in print. That offers a mala/rosary-like meditational system based on insular Celtic cosmology."
Reading List (* indicates books to start with)
Chadwick, Nora, The Celts (Penguin, Middlesex 1985)
*Cross, Tom Peete and Clark Harris Slover, Ancient Irish Tales (Barnes & Noble, Totowa NJ 1988 reprint of 1936 edition)
*Cunliffe, Barry, The Celtic World: An Illustrated History of the Celtic Race, Their Culture, Customs and Legends (Greenwich House, NY 1986)
Davidson, HR Ellis, Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe: Early Scandinavian and Celtic Religions (Syracuse University Press, Syracuse 1988)
de Santillana, Giorgio and Hertha von Dechend, Hamlet's Mill: An Essay Investigating the Origins of Human Knowledge and its Transmission through Myth 2ed (David R. Godine, Boston 1983)
Dillon, Myles, Early Irish Literature (University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1948)
*Ellis, Peter Berresford, The Druids (Eerdmans, Grand Rapids 1994) Note: some of his historical dates are wrong, invalidating a few of his theories, but a good Celtic history timeline will help you find these.
Evans-Wentz, WY, The Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries (Citadel Press, NY 1990)
*Ford, Patrick K, The Mabonogi and Other Welsh Medieval Tales (University of California Press, Berkeley 1977)
*Gantz, Jeffrey, Early Irish Myths and Sagas (Penguin, London 1988)
*Green, Miranda, The Gods of the Celts (Barnes & Noble, Totowa NJ 1986)
Hutton, Ronald, The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy (Blackwell, Oxford 1991)
Kinsella, Thomas, The Tain (University of Philadelphia Press, Philadelphia 1985)
Littleton, C. Scott, The New Comparative Mythology: An Anthropological Assessment of the Theories of Georges DumŔzil, 3ed (University of California Press, Berkeley 1982)
*MacCana, Proinsias, Celtic Mythology (Hamlyn, London 1970)
*McNeill, F. Marian, The Silver Bough (Cannongate, Edinburgh 1989) Merrifield, Ralph, The Archaeology of Ritual and Magic (New Amsterdam Books, NY 1988)
*Nagy, Joseph Falaky, The Wisdom of the Outlaw: The Boyhood Deeds of Finn in Gaelic Narrative Tradition (University of California Press, Berkeley 1985) O'Driscoll, Robert ed. The Celtic Consciousness (George Braziller, NY 1987)
*Rees, Alwyn and Brinley, Celtic Heritage: Ancient Tradition in Ireland and Wales (Thames & Hudson, NY 1989)
*Rolleston, TW, Celtic Myths and Legends (Avenel Books, NY 1986)
Ross, Anne, Pagan Celtic Britain: Studies in Iconography and Tradition (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1967)
Ross, Anne, The Pagan Celts (Barnes & Noble, Totowa NJ 1986) formerly Everyday Life of the Pagan Celts
Sjoestedt, Marie-Louise, Gods and Heroes of the Celts (Turtle Island Foundation, Berkeley 1982)
*Skelton, Robin and Margaret Blackwood, Earth, Air, Fire, Water: Pre-Christian and Pagan Elements in British Songs, Rhymes and Ballads (Arkana, London 1990)
Wood-Martin, W. G., Traces of the Elder Faiths of Ireland : A Folklore Sketch : A Handbook of Irish Pre-Christian Traditions (Longmans, Green & Co, London 1902) 2 vols
Filidecht and the practice of poetry
Calder, George, Auraicept na n-╔ces: The Scholar's Primer, John Grant, Edinburgh 1917 a difficult and often boring read, but very useful for understanding the scholastic context of filidecht in medieval Ireland
Chadwick, N. Kershaw, Poetry & Prophecy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1942 a wide-ranging examination of the practice of prophetic poetry around the world
Lord, Albert B., The Singer of Tales, Harvard University Press, Cambridge 1960 techniques of oral poetry and epic
MacAlister, R. A. S., The Secret Languages of Ireland, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1937 contains a study of the bŔarla na filed in the forms of ogamic Irish, "Bog-Latin" and other cryptic variants of speech
Mercier, Vivian, The Irish Comic Tradition, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1962 contains an excellent introduction to the traditional practice of satire
Murphy, Gerard, Early Irish Lyrics, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1956 essential examination of Irish metrics containing poetry in Gaelic and English translation
Nagy, Joseph Falaky, The Wisdom of the Outlaw: The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn in the Gaelic Narrative Tradition, University of California Press, Berkeley 1985 excellent discussion of Fionn as fili and the function of the fili as outsider
Rilke, Rainer Maria, Letters to a Young Poet, trans. H.D. Herter Norton, W. W. Norton, NY 1993 letters concerning the life of a poet and the creation of poetry
Skelton, Robin, Spellcraft, McClelland and Stewart Ltd., Toronto 1978 an excellent guide to poetry as magic, possibly the only book on the subject this book has apparently been reprinted by a different publisher
Skelton, Robin, Samhain and Other Poems in Irish Metres of the Eighth to the Sixteenth Centuries, Salmon Poetry Press, Dublin 1994 good explanations of the metrics of early Irish poetry, with English-language examples
Travis, James, Early Celtic Versecraft: Origin, Development, Diffusion, Cornell University Press, Ithaca 1973 a look at the history and development of formal verse in Ireland
Turco, Lewis, The New Book of Forms: A Handbook of Poetics, University Press of New England, Hanover 1986 according to Skelton, his metrics are incorrect in places, but he does explain all the technical terms and techniques of poetry
The Three Cauldrons
note: The Cauldron of Poesy is a 7th century Irish text describing in poetic terms the training and knowledge of the fili.
Bretnach, Liam, "The Cauldron of Poesy", ^╩riu #32, 1981, pp 45-93 scholarly translation and commentary
Henry, P.L., "The Cauldron of Poesy", Studia Celtica #14/15, 1979/1980, pp 114-128 scholarly translation and commentary
Laurie, Erynn Rowan, "The Cauldron of Poesy", Obsidian #2, Spring 1996, pp 23-30 Obsidian, Box 614, Athol MA 01331
Imbas Forosnai and the pursuit of imbas
Carey, John, "The Waters of Vision and the Gods of Skill", Alexandria #1, 1991, pp 163-185 Phanes Press, PO Box 6114, Grand Rapids MI 49516, email@example.com musings on filidecht and the Celtic symbolism of wisdom and inspiration
Chadwick, Nora K., "Imbas Forosnai", Scottish Gaelic Studies vol VI part II, pp 97-135 the seminal article on the subject
Iriwin, Lee, The Dream Seekers: Native American Visionary Traditions of the Great Plains, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman 1994 no good books exist on the Celtic traditions of dreaming and vision I found this book very useful in sorting out some of the workings of aisling and the visionary aspects of my own life
Laurie, Erynn Rowan & Timothy White, "Speckled Snake, Brother of Birch: Amanita Muscaria Motifs in Celtic Legends", Shaman's Drum #44, March/May 1997, pp 53-65 Shaman's Drum, PO Box 97, Ashland OR 97520 examines the possibility that the filidh used entheogenic substances to attain imbas
Ott, Jonathan, Pharmacotheon: Entheogenic drugs, their plant sources and history, Natural Products Co., Kennewick WA 1993 the essential guide to chemical components of entheogenic plants and their use if you only get one book on entheogens, it should be this one
Redgrove, Peter, The Black Goddess and the Unseen Real: Our Unconscious Senses and Their Uncommon Sense, Grove Press, NY 1987 none shall have wisdom who do not drink from the streams of the senses also
Stafford, Peter, Psychedelics Encyclopedia, 3rd ed., Ronin Publishing, Berkeley 1992 not as good as Ott, but very useful
The Fili and the land
Abram, David, The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World, Pantheon, NY 1996 a lyrical look at the problems of orality and literacy in human interaction with spirit in nature
LaChapelle, Dolores, Sacred Land Sacred Sex Rapture of the Deep: Concerning Deep Ecology and Celebrating Life, Kivaký Press, Durango 1992 a deep examination of ways to connect with the land
Laurie, Erynn Rowan, "The Preserving Shrine" in The Druid Renaissance, ed. Philip Carr-Gomm, Thorsons, NY 1996 poetry, nature and memory are one in the fili
McKibben, Bill, The Age of Missing Information, Plume, NY 1992 contrasts the quality of information available from technological sources and from interaction with nature
Snyder, Gary, The Real Work: Interviews & Talks 1964-1979, New Directions, NY 1980 a poet speaks on poetry, community and nature
Snyder, Gary, The Practice of the Wild, North Point Press, San Francisco 1990 meditations on living in the land
Thoreau, Henry David, Walden and Other Writings, Bantam, NY 1962 nature, simplicity, philosophy, and civil disobedience
Craft Reading list by Farrell (some overlap with the foregoing)
"*** Marks especially good books. Read these FIRST!! Keep in mind, this is simply a listing of the books that I have found useful. Question everything."
A.E.(GEORGE RUSSELL); "The Candle of Vision", Quest Books, Theosophical Pub. 1975
ALFORD, VIOLET; "The Hobbyhorse & Other Animal Masks", Merlin Press 1978
AMERICAN CONFERENCE FOR IRISH STUDIES; "Guide to Irish Studies in the U.S.A." 1987
ANWYL, EDWARD; "Celtic Religion in Pre-christian Times", Archibald Constable & Co. 1906
*** ARTOS, ALLEN; "Arthur, The King of Light", Lorien House 1986
ASHE, GEOFFREY; "The Ancient Wisdom", London 1977
BAIN, GEORGE; "Celtic Art: The Methods of Construction", Dover Pub. 1973
BARBER, CHRIS; "Mysterious Wales", Paladin Press 1983
BOASE, WENDY; "Folklore of Hampshire & the Isle of Wight", Rowman & Littlefield 1976
BONWICK, JAMES; "Irish Druids and Old Irish Religion", Arno Press 1976
BORD, JANET & COLIN; "The Secret Country", Grenada 1978
*** BORD, JANET & COLIN; "Mysterious Britain", Grenada 1974
*** BORD, JANET & COLIN; "Earth Rites", Grenada 1983
*** BORD, JANET & COLIN; "Sacred Waters", Paladin Books 1986
*** BREFFNY, BRIAN DE, ed.; "Ireland, A Cultural Encyclopaedia", Thames & Hudson 1983
BREFFNY, BRIAN DE; " The Irish World", Thames & Hudson 1986
BRIGGS, KATHERINE; "Abbey Lubbers, Banshees, & Boggarts", Pantheon 1979
BRIGGS, KATHERINE; "Nine Lives; Cats in Folklore", Rudledge & Kegen Paul 1980
BROWN, PETER, ed. & selected by; "Book of Kells", Alfred A. Knopf 1980
GANTZ, JEFFERY; "Early Irish Myths & Sagas", Penguin 1982
GERALD OF WALES; "The History & Topography of Ireland", Penquin 1982
GLASSIE, HENRY; "Irish Folk History", University of Pennsylvannia Press 1982
GREGORY, LADY AUGUSTA; "Visions and Beliefs in the West of Ireland", Colin Smythe 1920/1979
GREGORY, LADY AUGUSTA; "Gods and Fighting Men of the Celts", John Murray 1913
*** GUARD, DAVID, "Dierdre: A Celtic Legend", Celestial Arts 1977
HERM, GERHARD; "The Celts", St. Martin's Press 1975
HIGGINS, GODFREY; "Celtic Druids", Philosohpical Research Society 1977
HOPE, MURRY; "Practical Celtic Magic", Aquarian Press 1987
IRISH TEXTES SOCIECTY; "Poems of Egan O'Rahilly", Rev. P.S. Dinnenn & T.O. Donough 1966
IRISH TEXTES SOCIECTY; "Duanaine Finn", Vol VII, part 1, ed. & trans. Eoin MacNeil
IRISH TEXTES SOCIECTY; Keating, "History of Ireland, Vol 1-4, 1902/1987
IRISH TEXTES SOCIECTY; "Adventures of Suibhne Geilt", ed. & trans. J.G. O'Keefe 1913
IRISH TEXTES SOCIECTY; "Poems on the Marcher Lords", ed. Anne O'Sullivan & Padrain O'Riain 1987
IRISH TEXTES SOCIECTY; "Labor Gabala Erenn", parts 1-4, Trans. R.A.S. MacAlister 1941
*** JACKSON, KENNETH HURLSTONE; "A Celtic Miscellany", Penguin 1980
JACKSON, KENNETH HURLESTONE; "The Oldest Irish Tradition; A Window on the Iron Age", Cambridge 1964
JACOBS, JOSEPH; "Celtic Fairy Tales", Dover 1963
JONES, GWYN & THOMAS; "The Mabinogion", Dragon's Dream 1982
*** JOYCE, P.W.; "Social History of Ancient Ireland", Vol 1 & 2 Benjamin Blum Pub. 1968
*** KERR, MILDRED L., HARNES, ELIZABETH & ROSS, FRANCES; "Giants & Fairies", Charles E. Merrill Co. 1946
KINSELLA, THOMAS; "The Tain", Oxford Univ. Press 1969
*** KNEIGHTLY, THOMAS; "The World Guide to Gnomes, Fairies, Elves, and Other Little People", Avenel Press 1978
KNIGHT, GARETH; "The Secret Tradition in Arthurian Legend", Aquarian Press 1983
KRUTA, VENCESLAS & VERNER FORMAN; "The Celts of the West", Orbis 1985
LEAMY, EDMUND; "Golden Spears", Desmond Fitzgerald 1911
LEHMANN, RUTH P.M.; "Early Irish Verse", University of Texas Press 1982
LOGAN, PATRICK; "The Old Gods", Apple Tree Press 1981
LONSDALE, STEVEN; "Animals & the Origin of the Dance", Thames & Hudson 1982
LUCY, SEAN; "Love Poems of the Irish", Mercier Press 1977
MACALISTER, R.A.S.; "Tara; A Pagan Sanctuary of Ancient Ireland", Charles Schribner & Sons 1931
*** MACCANA, PROINSIAS; "Celtic Mythology", Hamlyn Pub. 1970
MACCULLOCH, JOHN ARNOTT; "Religion of the Ancient Celts", Folcroft Library, 1977rep.
MACCULLOCH, JOHN ARNOTT; "The Mythology of all Races in Thirteen volumes; Celtic, Volume III.", Cooper Square Pub. 1967
MACLENNAN, MALCOLM; "A Promouncing & Emtylogical Dictionary of the Gaelic Language", (Scots Gaelic) Aberdeen Univ. Press 1979
MACMANUS, SEUMAS; "The Story of the Irish Race", Devin-Adair Co. 1981
MACNEILL, MAIRE; "The Festival of Lughnasa", Oxford, 1962
*** MARKALE, JEAN; "Women of the Celts", Inner Traditions International Ltd. 1986
MARRIS, RUTH; "The Singing Swans & Other Irish Stories", Fontana Lions 1978 MARSH, HENRY; "Dark Age Britain", Dorset Press 1970
MATTHEWS, CAITLIN; "The Elements of The Goddess", Element Books 1989
MATTHEWS, CAITLIN; "The Elements of The Celtic Tradition", Element Books 1989
McNEIL, F. MARTIN; "The Silver Bough, Vol 1.: Scottish Folklore & Beliefs", Cannon Gate Classic 1956/1989
O'BRIEN, CHRISTIAN; "The Megalithic Odyssey", Turnstone 1983
O'CONNOR, FRANK; "Short History of Irish Literature", Capricorn Books 1967
O'CONNOR, NORREYS; "Battles & Enchantments", Books for Libraries Press 1922/1970
O'DRISCOLL, ROBERT; "The Celtic Consciousness", George Braziller 1982
O'SULLIVAN, DONALD; "Carolan: The Life & Times & Music of an Irish Harper", Vol 1 & 2, Celtic Music 1983
PEPPERS & WILCOCK; "A Guide to Magical & Mystical Sites Europe & the British Isles", Harper Colophon Books 1977
POWELL, T.G.E.; "The Celts", Thames & Hudson 1980
QUILLER, PETER & COURTNEY DAVIS; "Merlin, The Immortal", Spirit of Celtia 1984 REES, ALWEN & BRINLEY; "Celtic Heritage", Oxford 1971
*** RHYS, JOHN; "Celtic Folklore, Welsh & Manx, Vol.I" ROLLESTON, T.W.; "Myths & Legends Celtic", Avenel Press 1985 ROSS, ANNE; "Pagan Celtic Britian", Rudledge & Kegen Paul 1967
*** ROSS, ANNE, & DON ROBBINS; "The Life & Death of A Druid Prince", Summit 1989
*** RUTHERFORD, WARD; "Celtic Mythology", Aquarian Press 1987 RUTHERFORD, WARD; "The Druids, Magicians of the West", Aquarian Press 1978
*** SEYMOUR, ST. JOHN; "Irish Witchcraft and Demonology", 1913 SHARKEY, JOHN; "Celtic Mysteries", Thames & Hudson 1975/1987 SJOESTEDT, MARIE-LOUISE; "Gods and Heroes of the Celts", Methven & Co. Ltd. 1949
*** SMITH, LESLEY M.; "The Dark Age: The Making of Britian", Schocker Books 1984 SPENCE, LEWIS; "The Minor Traditions of British Mythology", Rider & Co. 1948 SPENCE, LEWIS; "The Magic Arts in Celtic Britain", Anchor Press SPENCE, LEWIS; "British Fairy Origins", Aquarian Press 1946 SQUIRE, CHARLES; "Celtic Myth & Legend, Poetry & Romance", Newcastle 1975
*** STEWART, R.J.; "Book of Merlin", Blandford Press 1988 STEWART, R.J., ed.; "Merlin & Woman", Blandford Press 1988 STEWART, R.J.; "Mystic Life of Merlin", Arcana Press 1986 STEWART, R.J.; "The Underworld Tradition", Aquarian Press 1985 SUTHERLAND, ELISABETH; "Ravens & Black Rain", Corgi Books 1985
*** THURNEYSON; "Old Irish Reader", Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies 1968 TOULSON, SHIRLEY; "The Winter Solstice", Jill Norman & Hobhouse 1981
*** WHITE, CAROLYN; "A History of Irish Fairies", Mercier Press 1976
*** WHITLOCK, RALPH; "In Search of Lost Gods", Phaidon Press 1979 WILDE, LADY; "Ancient Legends, Mystic Charms, & Superstitions of Ireland With Sketches of the Irish Past" Chatto & Windus 1925 WILLIAMS, GWYNN A.; "Madoc, The Legend of the Welsh Discovery of America", Oxford Univ. Press 1987 WILLIAMSON, JOHN; "The Oak King, the Holly King & the Unicorn", Harper & Row 1974
*** WOOD-MARTIN, W. G.; "Traces of the Elder Faiths of Ireland, Vols 1 & 2", Kennicat Pub. 1902/1970
*** YEATS, W.B.; "Fairy & Folktales of Ireland", Pan Books 1882 & 1882/1973 YEATS, W.B. & LADY GREGORY; "Irish Myth, Legend, & Folklore", Avenel Press 1986 YOUNG, ELLA; "The Wondersmith and His Son", David McKay Co. 1927
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